Catalytic converters are a common exhaust emission control device, which is used to limit harmful emissions from an internal combustion engine. This device is also referred to as a catalyst, or a scrubber. It helps in the conversion of harmful combustion byproducts (coppers, lead and so on.) into harmless carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and water. The engine’s performance is enhanced by the catalytic converter, which reduces harmful emissions from its exhaust system for fuel.
The majority of vehicles have catalytic converters , which help to reduce harmful emissions from the engine. These emissions include sulfur oxide, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, particulates, and sulfur dioxide. All these emissions affect the performance of the vehicle and can even be harmful to the operator. Diesel engines produce more carbon monoxide than other engines.
There are two kinds of catalytic converters which are direct air injection and an oxygenizer-based system. In direct air injection, a gas such as argon is introduced into the combustion chamber in order to create oxygen. The oxygen in the chamber triggers the catalyst. The catalyst activated particles react with other emission in an air stream and become attached to them, resulting in the production of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, or water as byproducts.
The oxidizer-based system utilizes catalytic converters to provide oxidation in the exhaust system. catalytic converters are designed to convert harmful exhausts from internal combustion engines to harmless substances such as nitrogen, water carbon dioxide, and water. These converters can be utilized by a wide range of vehicles, light and heavy, in order to increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. Some heavy duty vehicles, such as forklifts and mobile crane trucks that come with exhaust systems, could also require catalytic converters in order to meet the emission standards established by state regulatory agencies.
Catalytic converters are employed in injection systems to prevent combustion gases from escaping the engine compartment. Three-way catalytic converters utilize the stoichiometric measurement to determine the amount of time a specific chemical will remain active , without being destroyed by emissions from outside. Each three-way converter will differ in a small way, but all work according to the same basic principle.
In the United States, catalytic converters are subject to Department of Transportation (DOT) rules and must conform to certain emission standards. In addition, many manufacturers offer their vehicles with federal conformity kits that incorporate catalytic converters. These kits have to be approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in order to ensure compliance with DOT emission standards.
There are several different types of catalytic converters. A two-handle electrochemical catalytic converter washcoat, which has a binder as well as an oxygen catalyst, is one of the most popular. The binder will attach to any pollutants and permit them to be removed from the exhaust stream prior to they can reach the catalytic converter. A core cleaner is employed to cleanse the catalyst of any remaining dust and other debris. Most of these systems have a flow control valve to close the unit when fully operational, however there are a few systems that will shut off the unit upon discharge of the washcoat or after a set period of time.
The x reduction catalyst is the last kind of catalytic converter automobiles employ. This system employs one catalyst instead of two. Instead of allowing only one type of pollutant to be able to attack the catalytic converter, it breaks the polluted gas molecules into smaller particles that are more easily combustable. X reduction catalytic converters are also available for residential applications that use an additional catalyst for oxidation while being green.
know more about catalytic converter recycling here.